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National Curriculum Primary Appendix Mathematics 1 examples written methods

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Mathematics Appendix 1: Examples of formal written methods for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

This appendix sets out some examples of formal written methods for all four operations to illustrate the range of methods that could be taught. It is not intended to be an exhaustive list, nor is it intended to show progression in formal written methods. For example, the exact position of intermediate calculations (superscript and subscript digits) will vary depending on the method and format used.

For multiplication, some pupils may include an addition symbol when adding partial products. For division, some pupils may include a subtraction symbol when subtracting multiples of the divisor.

Addition and subtraction

Four examples of addition and subtractions calculations are shown. The first is column addition with two three-digit numbers and the next three examples are column subtraction with two three-digit numbers. The last two subtraction examples use the same numbers but show two different methods for column subtraction.

Short multiplication

Three examples of short multiplication are shown, with inceasingly large numbers.

Long multiplication

Three examples of long multiplication are shown, with the examples using the same numbers to illustrate two different ways of setting out the calculation.

Short division

Three examples of short division are shown, with different figures in each example.

Long division

Three examples of long division are shown, using the same numbers in each example. Each example shows both a different way of setting out the calculation and a different way of setting out the result (with remainder, as a mixed number and as a decimal).